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Library Search Results: Abstracts

Your search for Exploration found 117 files.
To read complete essay, click title or image, or click "Full Text" link below abstract.

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Showing 1 - 20 of 27 results

About Washington State -- Frequently Asked Questions and Their Answers

This essay offers a brief introduction to the state of Washington, its jurisdictional development and government, and its official symbols.
File 5315: Full Text >

Beaver, SS, First Steamship in Pacific Northwest

The first steamship to operate in the eastern Pacific Ocean was the HMS Beaver, a stout little craft commissioned by the Hudson's Bay Company. She saw continuous service from 1835 until July 26, 1888, when she ran aground at the entrance to Vancouver, B.C., harbor.
File 5260: Full Text >

Columbia River Treaty -- Historical Background

The Columbia River Treaty, signed in 1961 and ratified in 1964, was a landmark event in the joint U.S.-Canadian possession of the Columbia River. Yet for most of the river's vast history, the notion of a country's "possession" of the waterway was irrelevant. Not until 1792 did European explorers finally stumble upon the 1,243-mile-long Columbia. It immediately became an object of contention between rival powers. The American merchant Captain Robert Gray (1755-1806) was the first non-Indian to enter the mouth of the river in 1792 and he named it after his ship, the Columbia Rediviva. Several months later, British Captain George Vancouver (1758-1798) entered the mouth and his men rowed a dory 100 miles upstream, where they formally took possession for Britain. For the next 54 years, both countries vied for possession of the river and its vast inland drainage. The question was finally settled with the signing of the Treaty of Oregon in 1846, which cut the river in two at the 49th parallel. British Canada acquired the upper two-fifths of the river, while the U.S. acquired the lower three-fifths. Joint ownership of this giant resource created questions and conflicts, and in 1909 the Boundary Waters Treaty created an International Joint Commission to resolve such questions. After the completion of the Grand Coulee Dam in 1941, the commission launched studies which would eventually result in the Columbia River Treaty, dealing with complex questions of water storage, flood control, and power generation on the newly tamed river.
File 10437: Full Text >

Denny, Arthur Armstrong (1822-1899)

Arthur A. Denny is considered the leader of the party of immigrants who first landed at Alki (West Seattle) in 1851 and then founded the city of Seattle in 1852. On February 15, 1852, after a period at Alki, Arthur Denny and others staked their Donation Land claims across Elliott Bay on what is today the waterfront of downtown Seattle. Denny served as a delegate to the Monticello convention which separated Washington from Oregon, as King County commissioner and Seattle postmaster, and as a delegate to the Territorial Legislature. This biography includes a list of the Denny Party with birth and death dates for each member.
File 921: Full Text >

Donation Land Law, also known as the Oregon Land Law

The Donation Land Law of 1850, or Oregon Land Law, permitted settlers on unsurveyed lands to select claims of 320 acres per settler (640 acres per married couple) provided they resided there for four consecutive years.
File 400: Full Text >

Fort Colvile (Hudson's Bay Company), 1825-1871

Fort Colvile, located near Kettle Falls, was established by the British Hudson's Bay Company (HBC) in 1825 when it moved its upper Columbia Basin fur-trading operations to this new location from Spokane House (established in 1810). The new post was christened Fort Colvile, after HBC official Andrew Colvile. Over the years the post grew, eventually comprising the store, warehouses, shops, stockades and a bastion, dwellings, and out buildings, as well as large land holdings for agriculture and livestock pasture. As a major way point for travelers in the Inland Northwest, Fort Colvile received many visitors, who are the main sources of information for what the post looked like. These accounts are indispensable, for hardly a trace of the place was left after a 1910 fire burned down what was left after 85 years. The post had gone into decline after the 1846 settlement of the American/Canadian border dispute, which left Fort Colvile in U.S. hands. Soon, the American military had established its own Fort Colville, with a slightly different spelling, leaving the old British-Canadian post to enter a long spiral of decay. The Hudson's Bay Company ended its occupation of Fort Colvile on June 8, 1871.The site was inundated by Lake Roosevelt in the early 1950s, following the construction of the Grand Coulee Dam.
File 9235: Full Text >

Fort Okanogan

Fort Okanogan was the first American outpost in what is now the state of Washington. Established in 1811 by representatives of John Jacob Astor's Pacific Fur Company, the "fort" was a modest affair, initially consisting of only one small building at the confluence of the Okanogan and Columbia Rivers. The Canadian North West Company acquired it in 1814, expanded it, and later sold it to the British Hudson' Bay Company. The British replaced the complex with a second one, built about a mile away, in the 1830s. Today a small state park overlooks the second location. Only the wind and a simple highway historical sign mark the site of the original Fort Okanogan, which proved to be a temporary beachhead in an area that would not become part of the United States for 35 years.
File 7522: Full Text >

Hudson's Bay Company

The Hudson's Bay Company, a fur-trading enterprise headquartered in London, began operations on the shores of Hudson Bay in 1670. During the next century and a half, it gradually expanded its network of trading posts west across Canada. In 1821, it merged with its prime rival, the North West Company out of Montreal, thus acquiring several posts in the Pacific Northwest. Under the leadership of Governor George Simpson (1787-1860) and Chief Factor John McLoughlin (1784-1857), the company dominated the land-based fur trade in the Northwest for the next four decades. After the Oregon Treaty of 1846 settled the international boundary at the 49th parallel, the company gradually phased out its operations in Oregon and Washington territories and moved its Northwest headquarters to Vancouver Island.
File 9881: Full Text >

Latino History of Washington State

Latinos, currently the largest minority in the United States at more than 13 percent of the population, have been instrumental to the development of Washington state since the 1774 Spanish exploration of the Olympic Peninsula. During the past 25 years the state's Hispanic population has increased dramatically from 118,432 in 1980 to 549,774 in 2005. The foundation of the current Hispanic boom is rooted in economic and labor developments of the 1940s. Note: Although the term Latino is used throughout this essay, in actuality the Latino experience in Washington state has been until very recently primarily a Mexican American and Mexican experience.
File 7901: Full Text >

Lewis and Clark Expedition in Washington, 1805-1806: An Illustrated Cybertour

An illustrated cybertour of the Lewis and Clark Expedition in what is now the state of Washington. The Corps of Volunteers for Northwest Discovery (as the expedition was formally named) entered the area of the future state in October 1805. The cybertour was written and curated by Cassandra Tate, with photos by Glenn Drosendahl.
File 7062: Full Text >

Lewis and Clark in Washington

In May 1803, the United States purchased Louisiana from France. The doubling of U.S. territory caused President Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826) to send Meriwether Lewis (1774-1809) on a westward expedition to explore the nation's new piece of real estate. The Corps of Discovery was a party of 33 people, including Sacagawea, a Shohone Indian, and York, an African slave. The Corps, under the leadership of Captain Lewis and Captain William Clark (1770-1838), traveled by foot, horse, and watercraft across North America and back again beginning in Wood River, Illinois, in May 1804, and returning to St. Louis, Missouri, in August 1806. The period the Corps spent along the Columbia and Snake rivers and at the mouth of the Columbia -- from October 1805 to May 1806 -- was principally within what is now the State of Washington.
File 5556: Full Text >

Mexican American Women in Washington

Mexicans first moved to Washington Territory in the 1860s, one family raising sheep in the Yakima valley and another operating a mule pack train. In the twentieth century, particularly after the start of World War II, Mexican migrants from the Southwest and immigrants from Mexico, including women, made up a large part of the labor force that brought in Yakima County's harvests. In the last half of the twentieth century, Mexican American women assumed prominent roles in communities and in politics. They were an important part of the 329,934 people of Mexican origin in the state as of the 2000 census.
File 5629: Full Text >

Milestones for Washington State History -- Part 1: Prehistory to 1850

This is a brief chronology of the milestones of Washington state history. Part 1 begins at prehistorical times and goes to 1850. Search the HistoryLink.org database for detailed essays on these events.
File 5366: Full Text >

Mukilteo -- Thumbnail History

Mukilteo is one of the oldest settlements in Snohomish County and the first county seat. Situated on Possession Sound, the town shares its east border with Everett and Paine Field. Once the winter village site of the Snohomish Tribe, Mukilteo's rich heritage includes the 1792 visit of Captain George Vancouver (1758-1798) and the signing of the Point Elliott Treaty in 1855. Here early Mukilteo entrepreneurs Morris Frost (1804-1882) and Jacob Fowler (1837-1892) established the first salmon cannery in Washington Territory and one of the region's earliest breweries. Japanese workers of the Crown Lumber Company and their families became an important part of the Mukilteo community from 1903 to 1930. A marker commemorates their story. The Mukilteo Light House, completed in 1906, is now on the National Register of Historic Places and stands near the Mukilteo-Clinton ferry dock. Mukilteo incorporated in 1947. Since World War II, the city's proximity to Paine Field and Boeing has influenced growth choices significantly. Annexation of acreage south of the city in 1980 and in 1991 quickly expanded the population, which in 2005 was listed at 19,360. Expansion has shifted the economic focus away from the waterfront and toward the financial center of Harbour Pointe, but Mukilteo still retains a strong sense of its "Old Town" roots.
File 8422: Full Text >

Native Americans of Puget Sound -- A Brief History of the First People and Their Cultures

Current scientific data indicate that Native Americans arrived from Siberia via the Bering Sea land bridge about 12,000 years ago, during the last Ice Age. Native Americans in King County, who are united by a common Lushootseed or Salish language system, believe they were created in this area at the end of an ancient Myth Age. Major groups or tribes of local native peoples include the Suquamish, Duwamish, Nisqually, Snoqualmie, and Muckleshoot (Ilalkoamish, Stuckamish, and Skopamish) tribes. They evolved complex cultural, social, and economic structures, which the invasion of Euro-American settlers in the mid-1800s almost erased, but which continue today as the tribes struggle for their survival, respect and renewal.
File 1506: Full Text >

Oregon Territory, Establishment of

European exploration of the Pacific Northwest from the late 1500s through the 1700s led to multiple and overlapping territorial claims by Spain, Russia, France, Britain, and last but not least, the new American republic. At issue was the vast "Oregon Country" extending along the Pacific Coast from the northern edge of Spanish California on the 42nd parallel to the southern edge of "Russian America" (now Alaska) at 54 degrees 40 minutes north.
File 5446: Full Text >

Pacific Northwest Explorations Before the American Presence

In A. D. 458, a Chinese adventurer named Hwui Shan crossed the Pacific to Mexico, and then followed the Japan current north to Alaska. Centuries later, in September 1513, Vasco Nunez de Balboa "discovered" the Pacific after struggling across the swampy Isthmus of Panama. Following that momentous event, Spain dispatched a number of legendary captains to the West Coast of North America, including Hernando Cortez, Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo, and Bartolome Ferrelo. In 1579, Britain's pirate Francis Drake sailed off the Oregon coast; during the early 1740s, Vitus Bering opened the North Pacific to Imperial Russia; during the late 1700s, English captains James Cook and George Vancouver charted the Pacific including the bays and inlets of Puget Sound (Vancouver); and in 1786, Comte de La Perouse, representing France, sailed to the Queen Charlotte islands.
File 5449: Full Text >

Seattle and King County's First White Settlers

In the vicinity of the Duwamish River and Elliott Bay where in 1851 the first U. S. settlers began building log cabins, the Duwamish tribe occupied at least 17 villages. The first whites to settle the area were farmers who selected their claims on the Duwamish River on September 16, 1851, and brought household goods and family members to the claims on September 27, 1851. These original King County settlers were Luther Collins (1813-1860) and his family (Diana Collins and children Lucinda and Stephen), Henry Van Asselt (1817-1902), Jacob Mapel (or Maple) (1798-1884) and his son Samuel Mapel (or Maple) (1827-1880). Following shortly behind were the members of the Denny party: brothers Charles and Lee Terry, brothers Arthur and David Denny, the Low family, William Bell, Carson Boren and his two sisters Louisa Boren and Mary Boren Denny (married to Arthur). This file gives a detailed chronology of the arrivals and settlements of the Collins party, the Denny party, and various other claimants to first settler such as John Holgate (1830-1868). It sifts various debates and assertions about who came when and what this meant.
File 1660: Full Text >

Contains Audio/Video

Sequim and the Sequim-Dungeness Valley -- Thumbnail History

The thriving town of Sequim, the nearly deserted village of Dungeness, and the valley between them, located in Clallam County, are linked historically, culturally and economically. Sequim's present (2008) population is 5,330, or some 15,000 counting the surrounding valley. Before Sequim became a town, there was Dungeness, about five miles to the north, on the Strait of Juan de Fuca. One of the earliest Puget Sound ports, it made possible the development of inland Sequim. Long before either town existed, however, this narrow stretch of forest and prairie between the Olympic Mountains and the Strait of Juan de Fuca was the domain of the Klallam (S'Klallam) Tribe. Klallam is said to mean "strong people" (Carter, 34). The name Sequim (pronounced Skwim) comes from a rather poor approximation of the Klallam word for "hunting ground," although several published sources mistakenly claim that it is either the Indians' word for "quiet waters" or the traditional name for a local wild onion that supplemented their diet of clams, crabs and salmon. All that remains of the busy little shipping port of Dungeness (originally named New Dungeness) are a few buildings and a line of pilings from its long pier. Most of the dairy farms of the Sequim-Dungeness Valley have given way to the new homes of a massive influx of retirees drawn by the climate and scenery. Local agriculture has reinvented itself as the lavender capital of North America.
File 8555: Full Text >

Skykomish -- Thumbnail History

The City of Skykomish, located in the northeast corner of King County, began in 1893 as a rail town for the Great Northern railroad. Nestled in mountain forests, and supported over the years by rail, timber, mining, and tourism industries, Skykomish has prospered through the twentieth century and into the twenty-first century, while many nearby mountain communities have faded back into the green.
File 1623: Full Text >

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Showing 1 - 20 of 85 results

Tlehonnipts (those who drift ashore) become first European residents of Northwest lands near Satsop Spit (mouth of the Columbia) in about 1725.

In about 1725, Clatsops discover shipwrecked sailors whom they call Tlehonnipts (those who drift ashore) on a beach near Satsop Spit, which was located on the southern (Oregon) side of the mouth of the Columbia River. One of the sailors will be called Konapee the Iron Maker. They are probably the first European residents of the Pacific Northwest and will marry into Native American tribes in the region. The men may be Spanish or Mexican sailors engaged in the trade between Manila and Mexico.
File 7942: Full Text >

Juan Perez and his crew on Spanish ship Santiago sight and name Mount Olympus on August 11, 1774.

On August 11, 1774, Spanish explorers on the ship Santiago, commanded by Juan Perez, sail past the future state of Washington, sight the peak that will later be named Mount Olympus, and name it "Cerro Nevada de Santa Rosalia." Juan Perez's Spanish expedition represents the first European discovery and exploration of Nueva Galicia (the Pacific Northwest).
File 5682: Full Text >

Bruno de Hezeta (Heceta) party lands on future Washington coast and claims the Pacific Northwest for Spain on July 12, 1775.

On July 12, 1775, Bruno de Hezeta, Juan Perez, and others from the Spanish ship Santiago land on the shore of a wide bay and claim Nueva Galicia (the Pacific Northwest) for Spain. This is the first European landing in the future state of Washington. The bay, later named Grenville Bay, is located along the coast of what is now Grays Harbor County.
File 5690: Full Text >

Smallpox epidemic ravages Native Americans on the northwest coast of North America in the 1770s.

During the 1770s, smallpox (variola major) eradicates at least 30 percent of the native population on the Northwest coast of North America, including numerous members of Puget Sound tribes. This apparent first smallpox epidemic on the northwest coast coincides with the first direct European contact, and is the most virulent of the deadly European diseases that swept over the region during the next 80 to 100 years. In his seminal work, The Coming of the Spirit of Pestilence, historian Robert Boyd estimates that the 1770s smallpox epidemic killed more than 11,000 Western Washington Indians, reducing the population from about 37,000 to 26,000.
File 5100: Full Text >

Continental Congress of the 13 British colonies (future United States of America) passes the Declaration of Independence on July 4, 1776.

On July 4, 1776, Britain's 13 American colonies, governed by England through the Continental Congress, pass the Declaration of Independence. This founding document of the United States of America, drafted by Thomas Jefferson between June 11 and 28, 1776, is the opening salvo of the American rebellion against British rule. The American Revolution (1775-1783) forms the context for British and Spanish exploration of the Pacific Northwest. Spain and England are traditional enemies, and Spain supports the American colonies against England during the Revolution. In 1775, Spain had claimed the Pacific Northwest. The United States will win the revolution in 1783, and will inherit Spanish claims to the region. This file contains the complete text of the Declaration of Independence.
File 5696: Full Text >

British explorer Captain James Cook names Cape Flattery on March 22, 1778.

On March 22, 1778, Captain James Cook (1728-1779) names Cape Flattery. The Cape, home to the Makah Indians, and now part of the Makah Reservation, is the northwesternmost point in the continental United States, and marks the entrance to the Strait of Juan de Fuca. The name that the British explorer bestows is the oldest non-Indian place name still in use on Washington state maps.
File 5035: Full Text >

English fur trader John Meares names Cape Disappointment on July 6, 1788.

On July 6, 1788, English fur trader John Meares (1756?-1809) names the northern side of the entrance to the Columbia River, Cape Disappointment. The name reflects Meares' chagrin at not finding the Columbia River.
File 5621: Full Text >

Spain and Great Britain sign the Nootka Convention on October 28, 1790.

On October 28, 1790, Spain and Great Britain sign the Nootka Convention, which ends Spanish claims to a monopoly of settlement and trade in the Pacific Northwest. Nootka Sound, an inlet of the sea on the west coast of present-day Vancouver Island, will later become part of Canada.
File 7957: Full Text >

Captains Robert Gray and George Vancouver meet off the Washington coast on April 28 or 29, 1792.

On April 28 (or 29), 1792, two of the first non-Indian navigators to explore significant parts of what is now Washington meet on the high seas off Cape Flattery, just south of the entrance to the Strait of Juan de Fuca. Captain George Vancouver (1758-1798) goes on to explore and name much of Puget Sound as well as Vancouver Island. Captain Robert Gray (1755-1806), an American in search of furs, soon finds the Columbia River, which Vancouver, like all prior European navigators, has missed, thus giving the young United States its primary claim to the lands of the Pacific Northwest.
File 5049: Full Text >

Mexican and Spanish settlers complete Neah Bay settlement in May 1792.

In May 1792, Mexican and Spanish settlers commanded by Salvador Fidalgo complete the first permanent European settlement in present-day Washington at Neah Bay near the northern tip of the Olympic Peninsula. Explorer Manuel Quimper had claimed the bay and named it Nunez Gaona on August 1, 1790. The camp is only briefly occupied before Spain retreats from the Pacific Northwest under threat of war with Great Britain.
File 7953: Full Text >

Captain Robert Gray enters Grays Harbor on May 7, 1792.

On May 7, 1792, American fur trader Robert Gray (1755-1806) enters Grays Harbor, a large natural harbor on the Pacific coast south of the Olympic Peninsula in present-day Grays Harbor County. Gray, on his second trading voyage to the Northwest Coast from New England, is exploring the coast south of the Strait of Juan de Fuca following a year of trading for sea otter and other furs on Vancouver Island. He and his crew are the first non-Indians to enter Grays Harbor.
File 5050: Full Text >

Captain George Vancouver names Port Townsend on May 8, 1792.

On May 8, 1792, British Royal Navy Captain George Vancouver (1757-1798) names an extensive bay at the northeast corner of the Olympic Peninsula for the Marquess of Townshend, a British general. The "h" is later dropped and the bay is now called Port Townsend. The city of Port Townsend, now the county seat of Jefferson County, is founded in the 1850s at the mouth of the bay and adopts its name.
File 5291: Full Text >

Captain Robert Gray becomes the first non-Indian navigator to enter the Columbia River, which he later names, on May 11, 1792.

On May 11, 1792, American fur trader Robert Gray (1755-1806) enters the major river of the Pacific Northwest in his ship the Columbia Rediviva. Indian peoples have lived and navigated along Wimahl ("Big River") for tens of thousands of years, and Europeans have been sailing the Northwest Coast for more than 200 years. However, Gray is the first non-Indian to succeed in entering Wimahl, which he renames the Columbia River after his ship.
File 5051: Full Text >

Captain Robert Gray explores Grays Bay and charts the mouth of Grays River in May 1792.

Around May 14 through 17, 1792, American fur trader Robert Gray (1755-1806) explores Grays Bay on the Columbia River shore of present-day Wahkiakum County, and charts the outlet of Grays River where it enters the Bay. Grays Bay is an embayment on the north bank about 20 miles upstream from the mouth of the Columbia River. The various branches of Grays River rise in the Willapa Hills on the boundary ridge between Lewis and Wahkiakum Counties in southwest Washington, draining 124 square miles before flowing into the Columbia at Grays Bay. Both are named for Robert Gray.
File 5052: Full Text >

George Vancouver begins British survey of Puget Sound on May 19, 1792.

On May 19, 1792, the British sloop-of-war Discovery drops anchor between Bainbridge and Blake islands. The following morning, Capt. George Vancouver (1757-1798) dispatches Lt. Peter Puget and Master Joseph Whidbey to conduct a detailed survey of the waters to the south. This is the first penetration of "Puget's Sound" by white men.
File 5230: Full Text >

Captain George Vancouver drops anchor off Elliott Point (future Mukilteo) at midnight, May 30, 1792.

At midnight on May 30, 1792, British explorer George Vancouver (1758-1798), sailing on the Discovery, drops anchor at Elliott Point, the site of present-day Mukilteo. The following morning crewmembers from the Discovery disembark for exploration.
File 8432: Full Text >

Joseph Whidbey circumnavigates Whidbey Island in June 1792.

In June 1792, Joseph Whidbey, a British naval officer on Captain George Vancouver's voyage of discovery to the waters of the future Washington state, circumnavigates a large island located at the intersection of the Strait of Juan de Fuca and Puget Sound, which Vancouver promptly names for him. Whidbey Island, which currently together with nearby Camano Island comprises Washington's Island County, is the second largest island in the lower 48 states.
File 5060: Full Text >

British Royal Navy Lieutenant William Broughton names Point Vancouver on October 30, 1792.

On October 30, 1792, British Royal Navy Lieutenant William Broughton (1762-1821), who is exploring the Columbia River under orders from Captain George Vancouver (1757-1798), names Point Vancouver for his expedition commander. The point, on the north bank of the Columbia about four miles east of the present site of Washougal, Clark County, marks the end of Brougton's exploration up the river.
File 5233: Full Text >

The United States signs the Louisiana Purchase Treaty and buys Louisiana Territory from France on May 2, 1803.

On May 2, 1803, the United States and France sign the Louisiana Purchase Treaty, (which was antedated to April 30, 1803). With the stroke of a pen, the United States, a new and rather small nation, doubles in size, adding nearly 828,000 square miles -- an enormous swath of land that stretches across the entire central portion of present-day United States. France sells the land "for a song" -- about four cents an acre. The Louisiana Purchase is the achievement of America's third president, Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826). Jefferson had already planned the Lewis and Clark Expedition to explore the vast, unknown land west of the Missouri River, much of which had belonged to France. By the time the Louisiana Purchase is announced to the tiny nation on July 3, 1803, Meriwether Lewis is already on his way to Pittsburgh to obtain supplies for the historic journey, which will now proceed across lands belonging to the United States.
File 5706: Full Text >

Lewis and Clark Expedition enters future state of Washington on October 10, 1805.

On October 10, 1805, Lewis and Clark and the Corps of Volunteers for Northwestern Discovery enter what is now the state of Washington, at the confluence of what they call the "Koos koos ke" (Clearwater River) and the "Kimooenem" or "Lewis's River" (Snake).
File 5323: Full Text >

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Showing 1 - 5 of 5 results

History Day Award Winner: Vancouver's Exploration of the North Pacific, 1791-1795 by Emily Miller

George Vancouver's voyage of 1791-1795 was about the exploration of a new world and staking England's claim there; about cultural encounters and exchanges of knowledge and ideas. But in terms of looking at the bigger picture, his discoveries and explorations were about peeling back the layers of an unknown territory and satiating man's hungry desire to discover the unknown and expand human understanding. Note:This essay by Emily Miller, age 14, of Coupeville, won top honors in the junior division of the 2004 Washington History Day competition, and earned a $100 supplemental prize from History Ink/HistoryLink for focusing on a subject in Washington state history.
File 10767: Full Text >

Journey from Puyallup to east Lewis County (1885): A Reminiscence

This is an account by Gus A. Temple of a March 1885 journey from Puyallup (in present-day Pierce County) to Davis Lake Valley in east Lewis County near present-day Morton. Temple was 14 years old at the time of the journey. His account is reprinted here from the Lewis County Advocate of August 26, 1937.
File 8706: Full Text >

Oil Exploration in Washington

David Brannon has provided this overview of oil exploration and production in Washington, beginning with Native Americans and ending as recently as the 1960s.
File 7446: Full Text >

Ranald MacDonald (1824-1894), Adventurer

Ralph P. Edgerton was a judge in the Sixth Division of the Spokane County Superior Court and a member of the Spokane Corral of The Westerners. He wrote this biography of Northwest native and seafarer Ranald MacDonald, which appeared in The Pacific Northwesterner, Vol. 13, No. 1 (Winter 1969), pp. 1-12. It is here reprinted with the permission of the publisher.
File 7291: Full Text >

Turning Point 1: An Accidental Metropolis

This the first in a series of special essays commissioned by The Seattle Times to examine crucial turning points in the history of Seattle and King County. "An Accidental Metropolis" considers the gambles, contingencies, and blind luck that led to the Euro-American discovery and early settlement of what is today Seattle and King County. It was first published on October 1, 2000; this version incorporates minor corrections and clarifications. It is by Walt Crowley and the HistoryLink Staff, based on input by Greg Lange, Priscilla Long, Alan Stein, David Wilma, Greg Watson, and John Findlay.
File 9275: Full Text >

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