< Browse to Previous Essay | Browse to Next Essay >
Hong Yick assassinates Wing Quen Lee in Seattle's International District on December 12, 1934.
HistoryLink.org Essay 10046
: Printer-Friendly Format
On December 12, 1934, Wing Quen Lee (1909-1934), is found lying in a street in Seattle’s International District, bleeding profusely from the head. A Seattle Police patrolman takes him to Harborview Hospital where dies from severe head injuries. On March 20, 1935, homicide detectives arrest Hong Yick (1895-1935), a Suey Sing Tong hatchet man, who eventually confesses to the crime. During a three-day trial in April 1935, he is convicted of first-degree murder in King County Superior Court and sentenced to death. There are no appeals filed on Yick’s behalf and he is hanged on July 19, 1935. Yick is the only person of Chinese descent ever to be executed at the Washington State Penitentiary.
A Young Man's Death
In the early morning hours of Wednesday, December 12, 1934,
Benny Risco, a passerby, found a young Chinese male laying in the gutter at
8th Avenue S near S Lane Street, bleeding profusely from head wounds. A
patrolman on the beat in Chinatown, Officer Laurence A. Whitlock, rushed him to
the emergency room at Harborview Hospital. He was identified as Wing Quen Lee,
age 25, a member of the Hop Sing Tong, headquartered at 420 ½ 8th Avenue S
(now the Hip Sing Association Building). The victim, who remained
semiconscious, died at 4:50 a.m. An autopsy, performed by Dr. Pearl C. West
from the King County Coroner’s office revealed that Lee had been struck five
times on the head with a carpenter’s hammer. Any one of the blows would
likely have been fatal.
Chinese tongs were secret fraternal societies whose primary
interest was territorial control of gambling, prostitution, and narcotics. In
their quest for power and wealth, the tong leaders used extortion, terror, and violence,
liberally administered by “hatchet men” (enforcers), to gain and maintain
control. Recruits were required to swear oaths of allegiance, enforceable by
death, and subjected to initiation rites before being accepted as trusted
members of the tong. Eventually most tongs transformed into legitimate social
and benevolent societies dedicated to developing the community and were renamed
associations or clubs.
Detective Captain Ernest W. Yoris, Seattle Police
Department, assigned three detectives to the homicide investigation: Flavius A.
Himes, Edward R. Shirran and Harry J. Weedin. After weeks of questioning
reluctant informants, the detectives located three witnesses who identified
Lee’s probable killer as Hong Yick, age 38, a hatchet man for the rival Suey
Sing Tong, headquartered at 417 ½ Maynard Avenue S (now Hing Hay Park). Detectives
arrested Yick on Wednesday, March 20, 1935, and brought him to Seattle Police
headquarters (now the Yesler Building), 4th Avenue and Yesler Way, for
questioning. Captain Yoris was familiar with the suspect, having questioned him
in 1921 regarding a tong-war shooting. Yick had also served a term at McNeil
Island Federal Penitentiary for trafficking in narcotics.
Initially, Yick denied knowing anything about Lee’s murder He
eventually confessed, however, after three Filipino men were brought into the
interrogation room to confront him with the crime. The men said Yick tried to
hire them to lure Lee into a dark alley, ostensibly to purchase bootleg
whiskey, where he planned to attack Lee with a hammer. The men said they didn’t
want to be involved in a tong killing, and walked away. On Saturday, March 23,
1935, Yick confessed to Captain Yoris that he had killed Lee to prevent a tong war. He
also mentioned that they had argued over a woman, but claimed it had not been a love
triangle and she was not involved in the killing.
In his signed confession, Yick said Lee came to the Suey
Sing Tong late one night in November 1934, and awakened him. He told Lee to go
away because he was sleeping. Yick, who was the night watchman, thought Lee
entered the room surreptitiously while he was asleep and stole a Suey Sing Tong
membership list. On Tuesday night, December 11, 1935, Yick encountered Lee at
7th Avenue S and S King Street and asked about purchasing some bootleg
whiskey Lee kept at the Hop Sing Tong headquarters.
Lee was extremely derisive
toward Yick, so he decided to kill him that night. Yick arranged to meet Lee
after midnight and left to get a carpenter’s hammer, which he concealed in the
sleeve of his coat. They met again at 8th Avenue S and S King Street and
started walking toward S Lane Street. When Lee resumed leveling insults, Yick
slipped the hammer from his coat and struck him five times on the head. “I
feared with the names of all our members in the possession of another tong,
that there might be a tong war, if I did not kill him” Yick said (“Chinese
Admits Tong Slaying”).
Although not openly hostile, the Hop Sing Tong and Suey Sing
Tong were not allies and Captain Yoris believed Yick’s confession could strain
their relationship. On Saturday afternoon, March 23, 1935, he brought the
leaders of both tongs to Seattle Police Headquarters for a summit conference. He
explained the murder had been solved, but the list of Suey Sing Tong members
had not been recovered and Yick had no proof that Lee was the man who stole it.
The leaders agreed to let the law take its course and promised there would be
no warfare between the tongs as the result of Yick’s confession.
Trial began on Wednesday morning, April 24, 1935, before King
County Superior Court Judge Chester A. Batchelor. The courtroom was crowded
with tong leaders and their followers, anxious to see how American law would
deal with Lee’s killer.
For a death-penalty case, Yick’s trial was remarkably
short and received scant attention from the newspapers. King County Prosecutor
Warren G. Magnuson (1905-1989) personally handled the death-penalty case for
the state, but the press never mentioned the name of Yick’s appointed defense
attorney. Before noon, a jury was impaneled and sworn in. Magnuson outlined the
state’s case in opening arguments and proceeded with testimony laying the
groundwork for a first-degree murder conviction and the death penalty.
On Thursday afternoon, April 25, the prosecution concluded
the state’s case with the testimony of Captain Yoris, who read Hong Yick’s
confession, signed before six witnesses, into the record. On Friday morning,
defense counsel put Yick on the witness stand to offer his version of the
event. He testified he killed Lee in self defense during a fight and then
proceeded to demonstrate how he struck the victim.
On Friday afternoon, the
case went to the jury, which deliberated for approximately one hour before
returning a verdict of guilty with recommendation for the death penalty. Hearing
the verdict, Yick turned to his attorney and said stoically: “Does that mean I
get the rope? It was just as well that way. If I’d ever gone out on the street,
I’d been killed anyway” (“Slayer Satisfied by Death Verdict”). As expected,
Yick’s attorney immediately moved for a new trial based on judicial error and
On Saturday, May 11, 1935, Judge Batchelor denied the motion
for a new trial and sentenced Yick to be executed on Friday, July 19, 1935, at
the Washington State Penitentiary in Walla Walla. “As unpleasant as pronouncing
the death penalty must be, this court can do nothing else,” remarked the judge.
(“Tong Man-Killer Sentenced to Die”). Judge Batchelor advised Yick’s attorney
he had 60 days in which to file an appeal with the Washington State Supreme
Court, which would stay the execution date. With the trial over, however,
Yick’s attorney withdrew from the case. The Suey Sing Tong refused to help
because the Hop Sing Tong was demanding $7,000 retribution unless he died on
the gallows. No appeal was ever filed.
Yick remained philosophical, telling the guards at
the King County Jail that it didn’t matter because members of the Hop Sing Tong
would quickly avenge Lee’s death if he was ever set free. On Sunday morning,
May 12, King County Sheriff William B. Severyns and two armed deputies embarked
on the 290-mile drive to Walla Walla to deliver the condemned prisoner to the
Washington State Penitentiary.
At midnight on Friday, July 19, 1935, Hong Yick was taken
from his death-row cell and walked 40 feet to the gallows accompanied by two
prison guards and Reverend Peter Schmidt, prison chaplain and pastor of the
Emmaus Lutheran Church in Walla Walla. Five days earlier, Yick had announced
his faith in Christianity and was baptized by the minister. After reading Yick
the death warrant, Warden James M. McCauley (1890-1940) asked if he had any
last words. Yick said quietly: “Nope, no statement except I am willing to pay
my debt to society and may the Lord have mercy on my soul” (“Seattle Tong
The state executioner pulled a black cloth hood over his
head, followed by the hangman’s noose. Yick dropped through the trapdoor at
12:11 a.m. and was pronounced dead by a prison physician at 12:24 a.m. He was
the 37th prisoner, the eighth sent to death-row from King County,
and, to date (2010), the only person of Chinese descent to be executed at the
Washington State Penitentiary.
"Chinese, Beaten by Robber, Dies,” The Seattle Times, December 12, 1934, p. 10; “Chinese Admits Tong
Slaying,” Ibid., March 24, 1935, p.
2; “Tong Chieftains at Murder Trial,” Ibid.,
April 25, 1935, p. 3; “Defendant Heard in Tong Killing,” Ibid., April 26, 1935, p. 9; “Slayer Satisfied by Death Verdict,” Ibid., April 27, 1935, p. 3; “Tong
Man-Killer Sentenced to Die,” Ibid.,
May 12, 1935, p. 3; “Seattle Tong Slayer Hanged,” Ibid., July 19, 1935, p. 24; “Slaying Confessed,” Seattle Post-Intelligencer, March 24,
1935, p. 4; “Chinese death Trial Opens,” Ibid.,
April 25, 1935, p. 5; “Verdict Dooms Chinese Slayer,” Ibid., April 27, 1935, p. 3; “Seattle Killer Dies on Gallows,” Ibid., July 19, 1935, p. 1; “Tong
Slaying Evidence Read,” The Seattle Star,
April 26, 1935, p. 1; Chinese Dies on Gallows,” Ibid., July 19, 1935, p. 22.
Travel through time (chronological order):
< Browse to Previous Essay
Browse to Next Essay >
Asian & Pacific Islander Americans |
Licensing: This essay is licensed under a Creative Commons license that
encourages reproduction with attribution. Credit should be given to both
HistoryLink.org and to the author, and sources must be included with any
reproduction. Click the icon for more info. Please note that this
Creative Commons license applies to text only, and not to images. For
more information regarding individual photos or images, please contact
the source noted in the image credit.
Major Support for HistoryLink.org Provided
By: The State of Washington | Patsy Bullitt Collins
| Paul G. Allen Family Foundation | Museum Of History & Industry
| 4Culture (King County Lodging Tax Revenue) | City of Seattle
| City of Bellevue | City of Tacoma | King County | The Peach
Foundation | Microsoft Corporation, Other Public and Private
Sponsors and Visitors Like You
Hong Yick (1895-1935), prisoner No. 16117, Washington State Penitentiary, May 12, 1935
Ccurtesy Washington State Archives
Hing Hay Park (1975), International District, Seattle, June 2001
HistoryLink.org Photo by Walt Crowley
Hip Sing Association Building, S King Street and 8th Avenue S, Seattle, January 18, 2007
Photo Courtesy Joe Mabel
Warren Magnuson (1905-1989), 1934
Courtesy UW Special Collections